I have a thesis statement with 2 sources. I need 5 more sources with a 250 word summary. 

Here is the thesis statement: 

Thesis Statement: Successful reintegration of the ex-felons/offenders into society is fundamental to reducing recidivism; however, the system is designed to hold them back by depriving reintegration opportunities characterized by social exclusion and lack of personal development, heightening the risk of re-offending.

Raufu, A., Ben-Edet, E., Mendie, E., Tsado, L., & Krakrafaa-Bestman, D. (2022). Re-examining the Collateral Consequences of Felon Disenfranchisement in the U.S. Journal of Applied and Theoretical Social Sciences, 4(4), 454–470.

Here are the 2 citations I have so far and I need 5 more…

The study by Raufu et al. (2022) confirms that punishment for the offenders does not end after serving their prison term; instead, the post-imprisonment restrictions deny the ex-felons social, economic, and political privileges. The authors adopt a qualitative approach, relying on the literature review as the core data collection method and analysis of the evidence to explore the impacts of felon disfranchisement within American society. As explored in this study, Felon disfranchisement entails the denial of the voting privilege for the ex-offenders charged with violent criminal offenses. The literature review evidence confirms that felon disfranchisement suppresses voter turnout and undermines voting right. Besides, many studies affirm that African Americans are disproportionately affected by felon disfranchisement. A thorough analysis of this evidence reveals that only in 3 states (i.e., the District of Columbia, Maine, and Vermont) where ex-felons do not lose their voting right. Furthermore, the continuous increase in incarcerations means a possibly constant increase in disfranchisement. Notable findings by Raufu et al. (2022) are that felon disfranchisement is disproportionate in African-American-dominated states, leading to political non-representation of minorities and racially-targeted voter suppression.

This article provides high-quality, current, peer-reviewed, and credible evidence crucial to justifying how the systems are established to exclude ex-felons from society and available development opportunities. Besides, a mastery of these findings will form the literature review and background details of the main paper to demonstrate the dominant problem of disfranchisement as a threat to democracy and equal representation in the political arena. Therefore, Raufu et al. (2022) provide grounds to reveal the threats of excluding felons on democracy and equal citizenship.


Raufu, A., Ben-Edet, E., Mendie, E., Tsado, L., & Krakrafaa-Bestman, D. (2022). Re-examining the Collateral Consequences of Felon Disenfranchisement in the U.S. Journal of Applied and Theoretical Social Sciences, 4(4), 454–470.

In this study, Hipes (2019) explores the discrimination and stereotype elements against ex-felons, especially in the workplace. In well-documented background information, Hipes (2019) acknowledges that ex-offenders experience barriers to employment arising from the negative perceptions and stigma in workplaces. The study adopted a vignette survey experiment administered online with vignette scenarios covering theoretical stereotypes targeting ex-offenders. A sample of 325 participants was recruited who responded to the Mechanical Turk-administered survey. From the randomly selected sample, the findings confirmed that ex-offender/felon labels were linked to negative stereotypes. Some of the stereotypical labels on ex-offenders in the workplace included incompetence and dangerousness. The author confirms the existence and deep establishment of work-related stereotypes and stigma against ex-felons or ex-offenders. Hipes (2019) confirms that stigma against ex-felons in the workplace contributes to the emergence of social distance from ex-offenders. Discrimination against ex-offenders in the hiring process, workplaces, and other related contexts reveals them as a devalued population facing hardship in reintegrating into society.

This study provides high-quality, peer-reviewed, up-to-date, and credible evidence fundamental to exploring how the system is designed to discriminate ex-felons or hold them back from self-development. Furthermore, this article is relevant to support the thesis statement of aspects such as social exclusion and impediments to self-development among ex-felons. Reflectively, this study is crucial for this research paper as it provides findings to incorporate into the background information. Additionally, these findings will form the foundation for constructing a potent literature review on employment discrimination against ex-felons, impeding their chance for economic freedom.  



Hipes, C. (2019). The impact of a felony conviction on stigmatization in a workplace scenario. International Journal of Law, Crime and Justice, 56, 89–99.