Reflect on your practice problem as you consider possible solutions and address the following:

  1. Select one of the four translation science theories or models introduced in this week’s lesson. These include Diffusion of Innovation, Knowledge-to-Action, i-PARIHS, and Normalization Process Theory.
  2. Determine one sustainability strategy found in your selected translation science theory or model. Describe how the specific sustainability strategy you selected supports sustainability of the evidence-based intervention beyond the implementation phase of a practice change project.

(3 references needed)


1. Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services (PARIHS)/i-PARIHS

i-PARIHS is a revision of the original PARIHS framework. In the revised i-PARIHS framework, successful implementation is primarily specified in terms of the achievement of implementation goals and results from the facilitation of an innovation with the recipients in their (local, organizational, and health system) context. The core constructs are facilitation, innovation, recipients, and context, with facilitation represented as the active element assessing, aligning, and integrating the other three constructs (Harvey & Kitson, 2016; Helfrich et al., 2010; Kitson, Harvey, & McCormack, 1998).

2. Normalization Process Theory (NPT)

The NPT is a mid-range sociological theory that focuses on the contributions of social action to implementation, embedding, and integration of EBPs. The NPT offers a set of mechanism-based explanations for processes of implementation, embedding and integration. Practices become routinely embedded—or normalized—in social contexts as the result of people working individually and collectively, to enact them (May, 2013; May et al., 2009; May, Johnson, & Finch, 2016; McEvoy et al., 2014).

3. Knowledge to Action (KTA)

The KTA Framework is intended to help those concerned with knowledge translation to deliver sustainable, evidence-based interventions. Knowledge translation is defined as a process that includes synthesis, dissemination, exchange, and ethically sound application of knowledge to improve health, provide more effective health services and products and strengthen the healthcare system. The KTA Framework includes two components: The Knowledge Cycle and the Action Cycle. Each component involves several phases which overlap and can be iterative. The Action Cycle represents activities needed for knowledge to be applied in practice (Field et al., 2014; Graham et al., 2006).

4. Diffusion of Innovations

The Diffusion of Innovation theory is a classic sociological-cognitive theory of mechanisms of adoption and use of innovations by individuals and groups. This theory has informed many models of EBP and implementation science (Rogers, 2003; Dearing, 2009).