A 64-year-old man complains of severe pain in his lower extremities that he says results whenever he exercises. The pain usually improves with rest and elevation of his extremities. He is overweight and smokes one pack of cigarettes a day. He also complains of aching and swelling in his legs at night. Furthermore, he has hypertension and a family history of cardiovascular disease. What assessment data should the nurse collect that would indicate the presence of peripheral vascular disease (PVD)? What are the patient’s risk factors? What are some steps that this patient can take to improve his symptoms?

 How does aging affect blood pressure? Is advanced age considered a barrier to aggressive antihypertensive treatment?